<HTML><HEAD><TITLE>BBC TV from AP - the AP Dubbing Theatre</title> <meta name="description" content="BBC TV from the early 1950s"> <meta name="keywords" content="BBC,TV,Alexandra Palace,AP"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="css/csbbc01.css"> </head><BODY> <table align=center width=700 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 border=0><TR><TD> <P> <table cellpadding=10 cellspacing=0 border=0><TR><TD> <img src="images/ap03.jpg" width=77 height=200 alt="AP mast (2K)"></td> <TD> <h3>DIRECT TELEVISION from ALEXANDRA PALACE</h3> <table cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 border=0><TR><TD> <P><B><I>by Arthur Dungate</i></b> </td><TD width=150></td><TD> <script language="JavaScript" type="text/javascript" src="js/bbctopnav.js"></script> </td></tr></table> <P>. <P> <center><h1>The AP Film Dubbing Suite</h1></center> </td></tr></table></td></tr></table> <table border=0 align="center" cellpadding=5 cellspacing=0> <TR><TD width=150 valign=top> <BR><img src="blank.gif" width=1 height=8><BR> <script language="JavaScript" type="text/javascript" src="js/bbcapdub.js"></script> <BR><img src="blank.gif" width=1 height=5><BR> <TABLE BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="0" WIDTH="100%" class=red><TR><TD> &nbsp; Magnetic Recording</TD></TR></TABLE> <TABLE BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5" WIDTH="100%" class=side><TR><TD>By 1952 TNR was being dubbed with 35mm sepmag track. This was transmitted on the Cintel film scanners in CTR downstairs running double-headed. </td></tr></table> <img src="blank.gif" width=1 height=145><BR> <TABLE BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="0" WIDTH="100%" class=red><TR><TD> &nbsp; Newsreel dubbing</TD></TR></TABLE> <TABLE BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5" WIDTH="100%" class=side><TR><TD>In practice it sometimes occurred that the finished TNR arrived in CTR with only minutes to spare before transmission. </td></tr></table> </td><TD width=400> <P><B class=hd2>Future Developments</b> <P> <B>Magnetic Recording</b><BR> During the design of the dubbing suite it was realised that a sound recording system capable of giving an immediate playback, in addition to the normal photographic method with its inherent processing delay, would ultimately prove essential if newsreels and the like were to be really topical. Some consideration was given to the use of 33S! rpm disk recording, but the system is basically unsuited for film work owing to its inflexibility and the impossibility of editing. In addition, truly synchronous high-grade 33S! rpm equipment would require development. At that time interesting results were being obtained by the film industry with 35mm magnetic film recording, and as the system offered such obvious advantages for television film production, it was decided to begin with photographic recording alone and to await the development of the magnetic perforated film. <P> It is now considered that the technical performance of 35mm perforated magnetic film recording is comparable with, if not superior to, that of the most perfect photographic recording, and the introduction of the magnetic system is now being investigated. The method appears to have even greater advantages for a television service than for normal commercial film production, because a final dubbed picture can be transmitted immediately by a film scanner with the separate magnetic film running in synchronism. A combined magnetic and photographic  release print is considered impracticable and not without disadvantages, and so standard photographic picture and sound prints for the library or for release to other organisations would be produced by subsequent dubbing of the magnetic track. <P> With the introduction of magnetic recording it should be possible to delay the dubbing session of, say, a television newsreel, to within an hour of transmission time, thus enabling extremely topical material to be introduced and also relieving the pressure on the cutting rooms that results when late stories have to be prepared for a reel that needs processing. <P> </td></tr></table> <table border=0 align="center" cellpadding=5 cellspacing=0> <TR><TD width=150 valign=bottom> <TABLE BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="0" WIDTH="100%" class=red><TR><TD> &nbsp; 16mm</TD></TR></TABLE> <TABLE BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5" WIDTH="100%" class=side><TR><TD>A Bell & Howell 16mm projector was soon added, fitted with a Xenon lamp illuminant and a "J" soundhead which gave excellent optical reproduction. <BR><img src="blank.gif" width=1 height=8><BR> After News Division took over television news in 1954, the use of 16mm film began to increase to a dramatic extent until all tv filming was done on 16mm. </td></tr></table> <BR><img src="blank.gif" width=1 height=50><BR> <script language="JavaScript" type="text/javascript" src="js/bbcapdub.js"></script> <BR><img src="blank.gif" width=1 height=20><BR> </td><TD width=400> <P> <B>16mm Film</b><BR> Although it is still uncertain to what degree 16mm film will be used generally in the BBC Television Service, there is little doubt that directly 16mm film scanners are available it will become an invaluable aid to newsreel production. It is proposed to equip the third projection position in the dubbing section with a high-grade 16mm projector with arc illuminant and alternative synchronous or Selsyn drives, so that it can run in synchronism with the existing equipment. <P> Thus a 16mm film could be prepared with a separate 35mm magnetic dubbed sound track. Certain additional facilities apart from a 16mm film scanner will be necessary in the central telecine room to transmit a production of this type, but their provision does not appear difficult. <P> <B>CONCLUSION</b> <P> The suite has completed six months in service and has been found to be a very flexible tool for television film work. It operates for approximately nine hours continuously each day, and deals in that period with a continuous flow of very varied commitments. Approximately 150 dubbings have already been completed, including multi-reel productions, such as  Around the  World in Eight Days and  Retrospect 1949 , which have been completed in sessions of six to eight hours duration. Much experience of the requirements of such a suite has been gained, and this experience will be invaluable when the time comes to design similar arrangements for the new television production centres which the BBC is planning. <P> Acknowledgment is made to the Recording and Reproducing Divisions of RCA in this country, which have provided much of the equipment and have also contributed valuable technical advice. </td></tr></table> <P> <!-- next etc --> <table border=0 align="center" cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0> <TR><TD width=240></td><TD><b class=a10b>NEXT -</b></td><TD width=5></td><TD> <table cellspacing=0 cellpadding=2 class=next><TR><TD> <a href="apdubth7.htm" onClick="if(this.blur)this.blur()">Subsequent Expansion</a></td></tr></table> </td></tr></table> <P> <table border=0 align="center" cellpadding=5 cellspacing=0> <TR><TD width=163></td><TD width=350> <P><a href="javascript:history.go(-1)" onMouseOver="self.status=document.referrer;return true"><B>BACK</b></a> </td></tr></table> <P> <table align=center cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 border=0><TR><TD> <script language="JavaScript" type="text/javascript" src="js/bbctopnav.js"></script> </td><TD width=20> </td></tr></table> <P> <script language="JavaScript" type="text/javascript" src="js/bbctvfooter.js"></script> </body></html>